2014年5月29日 星期四

Maven and SBT

SBT and Maven

Maven

相關資料

Maven 核心概念 Build Life Cycle(Phase) and Plugins(Goal)

  • Maven 定義專案 build 的步驟 (Phase)
  • Maven 使用 plugin 來完成相關的工作 (Goal)
  • 使用 pom.xml 來設定相依性,以及每個 phase 需要使用那些 plugin 的功能
  • Maven Core Concepts

Core Concepts

  • Maven 的指令,有帶 : 的,就是使用 plugin 內建的功能,Ex: mvn eclipse:eclipse。沒有的話,就是要執行 Build Phase,ex: mvn package

如何產出最簡單的專案並結合 Scala

  • 使用 maven 指令產出專案基本目錄與檔案

    1. command:

        mvn archetype:generate
      
    2. choose archetype: 397
    3. choose archetype version number: 6
    4. project groupId: com.bridgewell.demo (maven repository groupId)
    5. project artifactId: single_demo (proejct folder) (maven repository artifactId)
    6. project version: 1.0-SNAPSHOT (proejct version) (maven respository version)
    7. project package: com.bridgewell.demo.maven.single
  • 目錄與檔案結構

.
|____single_demo
  |____pom.xml
  |____src
    |____main
    | |____java
    |   |____com
    |     |____bridgewell
    |       |____demo
    |         |____maven
    |           |____single
    |             |____App.java
    |____test
      |____java
        |____com
          |____bridgewell
            |____demo
              |____maven
                |____single
                  |____AppTest.java
  • Maven POM File pom.xml 中的 <packaging>jar</packaging> 是指專案要打包成那種型態,一般是 jar。如果是要寫網站,則是 war。如果是母/子專案,則是 pom
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
  <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

  <groupId>com.bridgewell.demo</groupId>
  <artifactId>single_demo</artifactId>
  <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
  <packaging>jar</packaging>

  <name>single_demo</name>
  <url>http://maven.apache.org</url>

  <properties>
    <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
  </properties>

  <dependencies>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>junit</groupId>
      <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
      <version>3.8.1</version>
      <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>
  </dependencies>
</project>
  • 新加 Scala Source code 目錄
mkdir -p src/main/scala
mkdir -p src/test/scala
.
|____pom.xml
|____src
  |____main
  | |____java
  | | |____com
  | |   |____bridgewell
  | |     |____demo
  | |       |____maven
  | |         |____single
  | |           |____App.java
  | |____scala
  |____test
    |____java
    | |____com
    |   |____bridgewell
    |     |____demo
    |       |____maven
    |         |____single
    |           |____AppTest.java
    |____scala

常用的 plugin 整理

  • maven-compiler-plugin
  • scala-maven-plugin
  • maven-dependency-plugin
  • maven-assembly-plugin
  • maven-scala-plugin

已加到 pom.xml,到時候用 copy&paste 就好

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
  <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

  <groupId>com.bridgewell.demo</groupId>
  <artifactId>single_demo</artifactId>
  <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
  <packaging>jar</packaging>

  <name>single_demo</name>
  <url>http://maven.apache.org</url>

  <properties>
    <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
    <jdk.version>1.7</jdk.version>
  </properties>

  <dependencies>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>junit</groupId>
      <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
      <version>3.8.1</version>
      <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>

    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.scala-lang</groupId>
      <artifactId>scala-library</artifactId>
      <version>2.10.4</version>
    </dependency>

  </dependencies>

  <build>
   <pluginManagement>
    <plugins>
      <!-- Java Compiler -->
      <plugin>
        <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
        <artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
        <version>3.1</version>
        <configuration>
          <source>${jdk.version}</source>
          <target>${jdk.version}</target>
          <encoding>${project.build.sourceEncoding}</encoding>
        </configuration>
      </plugin>

      <!-- Scala Compiler -->
      <plugin>
        <groupId>net.alchim31.maven</groupId>
        <artifactId>scala-maven-plugin</artifactId>
        <version>3.1.6</version>
        <executions>
          <execution>
            <id>scala-compile-first</id>
            <phase>process-resources</phase>
            <goals>
              <goal>add-source</goal>
              <goal>compile</goal>
            </goals>
          </execution>
          <execution>
            <id>scala-test-compile</id>
            <phase>process-test-resources</phase>
            <goals>
              <goal>testCompile</goal>
            </goals>
          </execution>
        </executions>
        <!-- 可再指定要用那個 scala 版本,不設定,會預設找 org.scala-lang 版本
        <configuration>
          <scalaVersion>2.10.4</scalaVersion>
        </configuration> -->
      </plugin>

      <!-- copy dependency / 將有用到的 dependency library copy 到指定的目錄,方便 deploy -->
      <plugin>
        <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
        <artifactId>maven-dependency-plugin</artifactId>
        <version>2.8</version>
        <executions>
          <execution>
            <phase>package</phase>
            <goals>
                <goal>copy-dependencies</goal>
            </goals>
            <configuration>
              <outputDirectory>${project.build.directory}/lib</outputDirectory>
            </configuration>
          </execution>
        </executions>
      </plugin>

      <!-- assembly / 將有用到的 dependency library 與專案的程式,全部打包成一個 jar 檔-->
      <plugin>
        <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
        <artifactId>maven-assembly-plugin</artifactId>
        <version>2.4</version>
        <configuration>
          <descriptorRefs>
            <descriptorRef>jar-with-dependencies</descriptorRef>
          </descriptorRefs>
        </configuration>
        <executions>
          <execution>
            <id>make-assembly</id>
            <phase>package</phase>
            <goals>
              <goal>single</goal>
            </goals>
          </execution>
        </executions>
      </plugin>
    </plugins>
   </pluginManagement> 
  </build>

  <reporting>
    <plugins>
      <!-- scala doc -->
      <plugin>
        <groupId>org.scala-tools</groupId>
        <artifactId>maven-scala-plugin</artifactId>
      </plugin>
    </plugins>
  </reporting>

</project>

常用指令

  • mvn compile 編譯程式
  • mvn clean 清除編譯好的檔案
  • mvn test Unit Test
  • mvn package 打包專案
  • mvn install 將專案的 jar 安裝到 local respository
  • mvn scala:doc Scala Doc
  • mvn scala:console 進入 Scala Interactive Interpreter (REPL)。類似 sbt console
  • mvn eclipse:eclipse 產生出 Eclipse 的專案檔。可以用 Eclipse import 專案。(註)

註:Eclipse 有 m2e 的 plugin,可以直接 import maven 專案,但 m2e 在專案開發時,不是很好用。所以我都轉成 eclipse 專案檔,再 import

SBT

相關資料

SBT 的核心

就是搞定 SBT Key 設定

所有寫的程式 (Build.scala) 或是設定 (build.sbt) 都是在設定 sbt key。

  • SBT 使用 Task 的方式,來做 Build Life Cycle. ex: clean, compile, package
  • SBT 也有 plugin。只要將 plugin 的設定,加到專案的 sbt key 中,就會生效,不加,就算有 plugin,也不會啟用。
  • SBT 可以自定 Task 及要相依在那個 Task 上。雖然 SBT 的 plugin 不多,但可以透過這樣子的方式來彌補。

SBT 與 Maven 的差異

  • SBT 及 Maven 都有 Build Life Cycle 的概念。
    • SBT 是用 Task 的方式,類似 Ant
    • Maven 則定義成 Phase
  • SBT 及 Maven 都有 plugin 可用
    • SBT 的 plugin 比較像是輔助的角色,就算不用 plugin,也可自定 Task 來完成相關的工作
    • Maven 則全都用 plugin 來執行工作,雖然在 pom.xml 寫的 plugin 不多,但 maven 本身已內建很多 plugin. 可用 mvn help:effective-pom 查.

目錄與檔案結構

  • build.sbt 與 Build.scala 至少要有一個。
  • plugins.sbt 有使用 plugin 時再加。
  • build.properties 可有可無。
.
|____single_demo
  |____build.sbt
  |____project
  | |____build.properties
  | |____Build.scala
  | |____plugins.sbt
  |____src
    |____main
    | |____java
    | | |____com
    | |   |____bridgewell
    | |     |____demo
    | |       |____sbt
    | |         |____single
    | |           |____App.java
    | |____resources
    | |____scala
    |   |____com
    |     |____bridgewell
    |       |____demo
    |         |____sbt
    |           |____single
    |             |____MyApp.scala
    |____test
      |____java
      |____resources
      |____scala

常用的設定

  • build.sbt

      import sbt._
      import Process._
      import Keys._
      import AssemblyKeys._
    
      name := "single-demo"
    
      version := "1.0"
    
      scalaVersion := "2.10.4"
    
      retrieveManaged := true  // 將 dependency libraries 匯出
    
      libraryDependencies += "mysql" % "mysql-connector-java" % "5.1.30" % "compile" // demo test
    
      javacOptions ++= Seq("-source", "1.8")
    
      compileOrder in Compile := CompileOrder.JavaThenScala
    
      compileOrder in Test := CompileOrder.Mixed
    
      assemblySettings  // 使用 assembly plugin,將 dependency library 及程式,打包成一個 .jar
    
  • plugins.sbt

      addSbtPlugin("com.earldouglas" % "xsbt-web-plugin" % "0.9.0") // 寫 web 會用到
    
      addSbtPlugin("com.typesafe.sbteclipse" % "sbteclipse-plugin" % "2.5.0") // 轉 eclipse
    
      addSbtPlugin("com.eed3si9n" % "sbt-assembly" % "0.11.2")  // 打包 jar
    

多專案相依

  • 目錄結構

      multi_demo
      |____build.sbt
      |____core
      | |____build.sbt
      | |____project
      | |____src
      |   |____main
      |   | |____java
      |   | |____resources
      |   | |____scala
      |   |   |____com
      |   |     |____bridgewell
      |   |       |____demo
      |   |         |____sbt
      |   |           |____multi
      |   |             |____MyTest.scala
      |   |____test
      |     |____java
      |     |____resources
      |     |____scala
      |
      |____project
      | |____build.properties
      | |____plugins.sbt
      |
      |____web
        |____build.sbt
        |____project
        |____src
          |____main
          | |____java
          | |____resources
          | |____scala
          | | |____com
          | |   |____bridgewell
          | |     |____demo
          | |       |____sbt
          | |         |____multi
          | |           |____Hello.scala
          | |____webapp
          |   |____WEB-INF
          |     |____scalate
          |     | |____layouts
          |     |   |____default.ssp
          |     |____test.ssp
          |     |____web.xml
          |____test
            |____java
            |____resources
            |____scala
    
  • 母專案設定檔 (multi_demo)

    1. build.sbt

        import sbt._
        import Process._
        import Keys._
      
        name := "multi-demo"
      
        version := "1.0"
      
        scalaVersion := "2.10.4"
      
        lazy val root = project.in(file(".")).aggregate(core, web)
      
        lazy val core = project.in(file("core"))
      
        lazy val web = project.in(file("web")).dependsOn(core) // web depends on core
      
    2. plugins.sbt

        addSbtPlugin("com.earldouglas" % "xsbt-web-plugin" % "0.9.0") // 寫 web 會用到
      
        addSbtPlugin("com.typesafe.sbteclipse" % "sbteclipse-plugin" % "2.5.0") // 轉 eclipse
      
        addSbtPlugin("com.eed3si9n" % "sbt-assembly" % "0.11.2")  // 打包 jar
      
    3. build.properties

        sbt.version=0.13.2
      
  • 子專案 (core) 設定檔

    1. build.sbt

        import sbt._
        import Process._
        import Keys._
        import AssemblyKeys._
      
        name := "core"
      
        version := "1.0"
      
        libraryDependencies += "mysql" % "mysql-connector-java" % "5.1.30" % "compile" // demo test
      
        assemblySettings  // 使用 assembly plugin,將 dependency library 及程式,打包成一個 .jar
      
        retrieveManaged := true  // 將 dependency libraries 匯出
      
        compileOrder in Compile := CompileOrder.JavaThenScala
      
        compileOrder in Test := CompileOrder.Mixed
      
  • 子專案 (web) 設定檔

    1. build.sbt

        import sbt._
        import Keys._
        import com.earldouglas.xsbtwebplugin.WebPlugin.webSettings
      
        name := "web"
      
        version := "1.0"
      
        libraryDependencies ++= Seq(
          "javax.servlet" % "javax.servlet-api" % "3.0.1" % "provided",
          // "org.eclipse.jetty" % "jetty-webapp" % "9.1.0.v20131115" % "container",
          // "org.eclipse.jetty" % "jetty-plus"   % "9.1.0.v20131115" % "container",
          "org.apache.tomcat.embed" % "tomcat-embed-core" % "7.0.22" % "container",
          "org.apache.tomcat.embed" % "tomcat-embed-logging-juli" % "7.0.22" % "container",
          "org.apache.tomcat.embed" % "tomcat-embed-jasper" % "7.0.22" % "container",
          "org.fusesource.scalate" % "scalate-core_2.10" % "1.6.1" % "compile",
          "mysql" % "mysql-connector-java" % "5.1.30" % "compile"
        )
      
        compileOrder in Compile := CompileOrder.JavaThenScala
      
        compileOrder in Test := CompileOrder.Mixed
      
        webSettings  // web plugin
      
        val mydeploy = taskKey[Unit]("Deploy Remote")
      
        mydeploy := {
          import scala.sys.process._
          println("start deploy")
          // val fileName = "%s/scala-%s/%s_%s-%s.war".format(target.value, scalaBinaryVersion.value, name.value, scalaBinaryVersion.value, version.value)
          val fileName = (Keys.`package` in Runtime).value.getPath() // 要加 Runtime 這個 scope
          println(fileName)
          val admin = "kigi"
          val pass = "1234"
          val host = "pc501"
          val port = 8080
          val cmdLine = "curl --upload-file %s http://%s:%s@%s:%d/manager/text/deploy?path=/mytest&update=true".format(fileName, admin, pass, host, port)
          println(cmdLine)
          val cmd = stringToProcess(cmdLine).!!
          println(cmd)
          println()
        }
      
    2. 執行自定的 task sbt mydeploy

專案共用的設定

每一個專案都要寫類似的設定值,有沒有寫一次,其他就共用的方式,日後維護也方便?

  • SBT Scope

    • 詳細說明
    • 基本上,每個專案的設定都是獨立的,也就是說,在母專案的設定值並不會帶到子專案
  • 如果要共用的話

    • 在母專案寫 Build.scala
      import sbt._
      import Keys._
    
      object BuildSettings {
        val buildSettings = Seq (
          organization := "com.bridgewell.aggregator",
          organizationName := "BridgeWell Inc.",
          organizationHomepage := Some(new java.net.URL("http://www.bridgewell.com.tw")),
          version := "1.0",
          scalaVersion := "2.10.4",
          retrieveManaged := true,
          compileOrder in Compile := CompileOrder.JavaThenScala,
          compileOrder in Test := CompileOrder.Mixed
        )
      }
    
      object Dependencies {
        val jettyVersion = "9.1.0.v20131115"
        val tomcatVersion = "7.0.22"
        val scalateVersion = "1.6.1"
        val luceneVersion = "4.8.1"
    
        val cassandraCore = "com.datastax.cassandra" % "cassandra-driver-core" % "2.0.1" % "compile"
        val jsoup = "org.jsoup" % "jsoup" % "1.7.3" % "compile"
    
        val commonsCodecc = "commons-codec" % "commons-codec" % "1.9"
        val commonsLang = "org.apache.commons" % "commons-lang3" % "3.3.1" % "compile"
        val commonsConfig = "commons-configuration" % "commons-configuration" % "1.10" % "compile"
    
        val log4j = "log4j" % "log4j" % "1.2.17" % "compile"
        val servlet = "javax.servlet" % "javax.servlet-api" % "3.0.1" % "provided"
    
        val jettyWeb = "org.eclipse.jetty" % "jetty-webapp" % jettyVersion % "container"
        val jettyPlus = "org.eclipse.jetty" % "jetty-plus"   % jettyVersion % "container"
    
        val tomcatCore = "org.apache.tomcat.embed" % "tomcat-embed-core" % tomcatVersion % "container"
        val tomcatLog = "org.apache.tomcat.embed" % "tomcat-embed-logging-juli" % tomcatVersion % "container"
        val tomcatJasper = "org.apache.tomcat.embed" % "tomcat-embed-jasper" % tomcatVersion % "container"
    
        val scalate = "org.fusesource.scalate" % "scalate-core_2.10" % scalateVersion % "compile"
        val scalatePlugin = "org.fusesource.scalate" % "sbt-scalate-plugin_2.10" % scalateVersion
    
        val mysql = "mysql" % "mysql-connector-java" % "5.1.30" % "compile"
    
        val luceneCore = "org.apache.lucene" % "lucene-core" % "4.8.1" % "compile"
      }
    
    • 子專案的 build.sbt 加入母專案的設定
      name := "core"
    
      BuildSettings.buildSettings
    
      libraryDependencies ++= Seq (
          Dependencies.commonsLang,
          Dependencies.cassandraCore,
          Dependencies.mysql
      )
    
    • 驗証方式:查設定值
     sbt version
     sbt retrieveManaged
     sbt organizationName
    

Global Plugins

~./sbt/version_number/plugins/build.sbt 加自已一定會用到的 plugins. ex:

addSbtPlugin("com.typesafe.sbteclipse" % "sbteclipse-plugin" % "2.5.0") // 轉 eclipse

addSbtPlugin("com.eed3si9n" % "sbt-assembly" % "0.11.2")  // 打包 jar

SBT Profile (Configuration)

在 deployment 時,因為主機的環境不同,會有不同的設定檔。在開發專案時,會將不同主機的設定檔也加入專案中,在 deploy 時,會依專案的 profile 設定,使用相對應的設定案,打包成 jar or war 以下是使用 SBT 的 Configuration 的特性,做成有 profile 的效果。

import sbt._
import com.earldouglas.xsbtwebplugin.WebPlugin

name := "web"

BuildSettings.buildSettings

WebPlugin.webSettings

libraryDependencies ++= Seq (
  Dependencies.commonsLang,
  Dependencies.cassandraCore,
  Dependencies.mysql,
  Dependencies.scalate,
  Dependencies.servlet,
  Dependencies.jettyWeb,
  Dependencies.jettyPlus
)

def prepareTask(profile: String): Def.Initialize[Task[Unit]] = Def.task {
  println("start copy profile: " + profile)
  IO.copyFile(sourceDirectory.value / "main" / "webapp" / "WEB-INF" / "config" / "system.properties", baseDirectory.value / "profile" / profile / "webapp" / "WEB-INF" / "config" / "system.properties.tmp", true)
  IO.copyFile(baseDirectory.value / "profile" / profile / "webapp" / "WEB-INF" / "config" / "system.properties", sourceDirectory.value / "main" / "webapp" / "WEB-INF" / "config" / "system.properties", true)
  println("end copy profile: " + profile)
}

def postTask(profile: String): Def.Initialize[Task[Unit]] = Def.task {
  IO.copyFile(baseDirectory.value / "profile" / profile / "webapp" / "WEB-INF" / "config" / "system.properties.tmp", sourceDirectory.value / "main" / "webapp" / "WEB-INF" / "config" / "system.properties", true)
  IO.delete(baseDirectory.value / "profile" / profile / "webapp" / "WEB-INF" / "config" / "system.properties.tmp")
}

def deployTask(host: String, account: String, pass: String, port: Int = 8080): Def.Initialize[Task[File]] = Def.task {
  val file = (Keys.`package` in Runtime).value
  val cmdLine = "curl --upload-file %s http://%s:%s@%s:%d/manager/text/deploy?path=/web&update=true".format(file.getPath(), account, pass, host, port)
  println(cmdLine)
  //val cmd = scala.sys.process.stringToProcess(cmdLine).!!
  //println(cmd)
  file
}

val prepare = taskKey[Unit]("prepare profile configs")

val webdeploy = taskKey[Unit]("web remote deployment")

val putremote = taskKey[File]("put war file to remote server")

val PC501 = config("pc501")

prepare in PC501 <<= prepareTask("pc501")

putremote in PC501 <<= deployTask("pc501", "kigi", "1234", 8080).dependsOn(prepare in PC501)

webdeploy in PC501 <<= postTask("pc501").dependsOn(putremote in PC501).dependsOn(update).dependsOn(clean)

執行指令:sbt pc501:webdeploy

總結

了解 SBT 及 Maven 核心的原理後,其他的就上網找文件或者 sample 來做。

Maven 設定 plugin 是件很煩雜工作,不會用是很正常的。所以後來才有 Gradle 及其他類似的工具出現。

建議寫好的設定檔要留著,到時候就用大絕招(copy&paste)就好

注意事項

  • 不要在 Task 直接呼叫另一個 Task (ex: Task.value)。因為 SBT 不會依照你寫的程式順序來執行,反而會在執行 Task 前,就先執行被呼叫的 Task,行為類似 dependsOn.
  • dependsOn 不要用 dependsOn(a, b) ;因為 depend 的順序會被 SBT 排序,不會是你預期的順序,改用 dependsOn(a).dependsOn(b) 這樣子,會先執行 b 再執行 a.
  • 下完 clean 後,記得下 update,以免 eclipse 專案或下次 build 會少檔案。
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